Plan de Constantinople, non compris ses faubourgs. Grave d'apres les documents du ministere de la Guerre par E. Olivier.
$8000 / ≈ €7289
The ornate design on the top of the title is a tughra, which is a highly stylized and individualized signature (or monogram) of the reigning Ottoman Sultan.
This print has on cover a gold manuscript "Tughra" of Abdülmecid I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1839-1861).
Abdülmecid I was a well educated, liberal minded, and the first sultan to speak French, Abdülmecid continued the reform program of his father, Mahmud II, and was strongly assisted by his ministers Mustafa Reşid Paşa, Mehmed Emin Âli Paşa, and Fuad Paşa.
The reform edicts were in part directed toward winning the support of European powers. The edicts proclaimed the equality of all citizens under the law and granted civil and political rights to the Christian subjects.
The main purpose of the reforms, however, remained the preservation of the Ottoman state.
The army was reorganized (1842) and conscription introduced; new penal, commercial, and maritime codes were promulgated; and mixed civil and criminal courts with European and Ottoman judges were established. In 1858 a new land law confirming the rights of ownership was introduced, and an attempt was made to establish a new system of centralized provincial administration.
The sultan's educational reforms included the formation of a Ministry of Education and the establishment of military preparatory schools and secondary schools; he also established an Ottoman school in Paris (1855).
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