$750 / ≈ €683
The French Service géographique des armées was founded in 1887 and provided the French military and administrative forces with maps; their publications usually do not appear on the market. In 1940 the division became L'Institut géographique national (IGN).
The helio engraving was initially cited by J. N. Niépce (1829) to describe his photo-etching process (1826), which used a pewter plate coated with a bitumen resist that hardened on prolonged exposure to light.
FAQ - Guarantee - Shipping
Buying in the Buy-it-Now Gallery
This item is available for immediate purchase when a "Add to Cart" or "Inquire Now" button is shown.
Items are sold in the EU margin scheme and include VAT. Exportation outside of the EU will reduce a 9% VAT from the invoice amount.
Payments are accepted in Euros or US Dollars.
Please have a look for more information about buying in the Buy-It-Now gallery or about bidding at auction.
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We fully guarantee the authenticity of items we sell. We provide a certificate of authenticity for each purchased item.
A flat shipping fee of € 25 / $ 30 is added to each shipment within Europe and North America. This covers : International Priority shipping, Packing and Insurance (up to the invoice amount).
Shipments to Asia are $ 40 and rest of the world $50
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Paulus Swaen maintains an archive of most of our high-resolution rare maps, prints, posters and medieval manuscript scans. We make them freely available for download and study.
In accordance with the EU Consumer Rights Directive and habitually reside in the European Union you have the right to cancel the contract for the purchase of a lot, without giving any reason.
The cancellation period will expire 14 calendar days from the day after the date on which you or a third party (other than the carrier and indicated by you) acquires, physical possession of the lot. To exercise the right to cancel you must inform Paulus Swaen Europe bv, which is offering to sell the lot either as an agent for the seller or as the owner of the lot, of your decision to cancel this contract by a clear statement (e.g. a letter sent by post, or e-mail (email@example.com).
To meet the cancellation deadline, it is sufficient for you to send your communication concerning your exercise of the right to cancel before the cancellation period has expired.