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The fine art of printmaking is concerned with the production of images by varying methods of replication onto paper, parchment, fabric, or other supports. The resulting fine prints (impressions) are considered to be works of art in their own right, even though they exist in multiples.
Printmaking encompasses woodcuts, engraving, etching, mezzotint, aquatint, drypoint, lithography, screen-printing.
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Currier & Ives was a New York publishing firm that produced and sold thousands of impressions of more than 7,000 different lithographic prints during the latter half of the nineteenth century. One of the most prolific printmaking concerns of its time, the firm originated with Nathaniel Currier (1813-1888) whose shop issued its first lithographs in 1835.
In 1852 Nathaniel Currier was joined by his brother-in-law, James Merritt Ives (1824-1895). The firm operated until 1907."
Basilius Besler was a pharmacist in Nuremberg who set up his own botanical gardens, and developed a comprehensive collection of natural history specimens, and was soon known as a botanist and collector of natural history specimens. He described his then famous, natural history showcase in two books. He was in charge of the bishop's gardens in Eichstätt, and in 1609, Besler wrote a description of the garden, he created for the bishop of Eichstätt. In 1611, the Prince Bishop of Eichstätt in Germany was already terminally ill when he determined to record for posterity the the spectacular garden he'd created at his palace in Bavaria with plants from around the world.
Eichstätt was the first major European botanical garden outside Italy.