Auction catalogs are important sources for reconstructing Van Santen's work. As a result of Van Santen's great. renown his name was regularly mentioned in the catalogs of book and 'papierkonst'sales; this was not the case for his fellow colorists. The earliest reference is from 1684, when the Van der Hem library was auctioned off. The descriptions in catalogs offer the best source for tracking down Van Santen's customers and collectors and for gaining a general picture of his activities. There are not always catalogs available, however, of the many sales of estates, art and book collections in the 17th and 18th centuries, either because they were never made or have been lost. An important addition to the auction catalogs are the advertisements in newspapers of these auctions. The presence of Van Santen's work around 1700 was an indication of the quality of the sale in question, so that, in contrast to his fellow colorists, his name and work were often used even in the small newspaper advertisements.
Van Santen's work has been found in libraries and print collections of the following collectors: Comelis Nicolal (Amsterdam 1698), Hendrik van Beest (Amsterdam 1704), the famous binder Albert Magnus (Amsterdam 1707), Jacob Cromhout (Amsterdam 1709), Dirk van der Hagen (Amsterdam 1710), H.A. van der Marck (The Hague 1712), Willem van Beest (Amsterdam 1714), Petrus Deynoot (Rotterdam 1728), Goswin Uilenbroek (Amsterdam 1729 and 1741), Isaac Clockener (Amsterdam 1758), Valerius Röver (ms., Delft ca. 1740) and Jan de Kommer (Amsterdam 1767), aside from the already-mentioned collections of Nicolaas Witsen (Amsterdam 1728), Laurens Van der Hem (Amsterdam 1684, The Hague 1730) and Joan Bus. In 1718, 1720, 1723 and 1740 Van Santen's work was used to advertise four anonymous auctions'.
A look at the catalogues makes clear that the owners of work coloured by Van Santen were for the most part well-to-do collectors of books, prints and frequently also of paintings. In most cases their collections included more than one work by Van Santen.
Atlases were often the heart of a collection, particularly the multi-volume atlases by Blaeu, frequently accompanied by 'toevoegselen' that is with other maps and prints or additions from other atlases. Not only in the Van der Hem collection was the Blaeu atlas decorated by Van Santen the showpiece of the collection, but also in those of Magnus, Cromhout, Witsen and Van der Hagen. Other atlases colored by Van Santen were also in circulation; these included the atlases of Janssonius, Cellarius, Sanson and Goos. Van Santen must have also colored and sold individual prints and maps. Apart from the individual maps offered at the anonymous auction in March 1723 this is shown for example in an advertisement of 1758, mentioning 'een weergalooze collectie van gebonden en losse Prentwerken, waar van eenige in vergulde lysten, synde het grootste getal afgezet door den vermaarden D.J. van Zanten' belonging to Isaac Clockener.
The descriptions in the catalogs underline the opulent character of Van Santen's work. The lavish use of gold and costly colors such as ultramarine and carmine which made Van Santen's work renown was apparently not normal practice in illumination. Probably the purchase of such materials was too costly.
Below is a survey of the references to Van Santen's cartographic work in old collections known to date (1992), accompanied by extensive quotations. This is followed by a list of other titles which have been found. Some of the atlases named have been preserved but most of them have not yet been identified or have been lost. Since the research into Van Santen's work is only in a beginning stage, the chance is great that a number of other works will come to light.
fifty-volume Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem which we discussed
above under 'Work identified as Van Santen's', the first set of
works which must be mentioned are those belonging to the Amsterdam
collector Jacob Cromhout. He seems to have wanted to equal
Van der Hem's collection is both in quantity and in quality. In
addition to a collection of more than 200 paintings, he had an
an exceptional collection of atlases and map books, a large portion of
which had been illuminated by Van Santen. For the auction of
his collection (dated April 19, 1709), a special appendix to the catalog was printed for the atlas collection. This
Catalogus van Atlassen, Stede-boeken, Boeken met kaarten,
pinten en figuren.... has never been examined in connection
with Van Santen.
In the middle of the many 'curieus' colored works there are no fewer than thirteen items that mention Van Santen.
The foremost entry (no. 1) is an 18-volume Blaeu atlas-factice, an 'uitstekende Atlas, van Blaeu, Nederduits / in 18 stucken,. behelsende behalven de ordinaris Atlas-kaerten / noch daer en boven de meeste aldernieuwste kaerten / en veel treffelyke konst-printen, bestaende in alderhande Verbeeldingen / van Personagien / kryg- en Staetsbedryven en gesichten van Plaetsen: in 18 Banden groot Atlas Papier / seer uitstekent kostelyk gebonden / en over heerlyk met Gout / karmyn en Ultramaryn afgeset / door Dirk Jansz.van Santen, daer van geen weerga is'.
Furthermore, there were 'door den zelfden van Zanten kostelyk afgeset' a 'Fransche Atlas van Sanson, 2 voll.'(2), and a 'Neptune François of Zee-Atlas van Sanson'(3), both 'met seer veel byvoegselen' and bound in red leather; the 'Atlas Coelestis of Harmonia Macrocosmia Cellarii'(4); 'the Atlas of oude Wereldbeschryvinge van Janssonius (5); the Waterwereld of Zee-Atlas van Janssoniu.s' (6); the 'Waterwereld of groote Zee-Atlas van Goos, 2 stukken' (7); the 'Atlas of nieuwe Zee-spiegel' van Goos (8); and five prints 'Atlas wyze gebonde', including once again the Caroussel of Louis XIV (18), and 'Oxonia Illustrata', a description of Oxford accompanied by prints.
Volumes of plates bound like an atlas such as these, often accompanied multi-volumed atlases as illustrations.
Dirk Van der Hagen, about whom nothing is known outside of references to him in the advertisements, had a collection which was auctioned off and included a vierdelige Blaeu-atlas, 'ongemeen konstig met goud &c overschildert van D. Jansz. van Zanten, nooit so gesien (... )'. In addition, Van der Hagen owned 'andere Boekjens en losse printen' by Van Santen (advert. dated October 11 and 28, 1710)51.
estate sale of the widow of Albert Magnus, the famous bookbinder,
also included a grand Blaeu atlas. For sale were 'veel
schoone Atlassen en Stedeboeken van Blaeu in verscheydene
Talen, waer onder een seer heerlyk door Dirk Jansz van
Santen alfgezet, en 19 deelen Latyn, de weerga van Blok ( ..
)' (advert. dated February 8 and 12, 1707).
This atlas was identified by Fontaine Verwey as the series of 19 exquisitely colored volumes housed in the Museum MeermannoWestreenianum in The Hague, the Atlas van Hadrianus Relandus (nr.3). The volumes were purchased for f 415 in 1761 by Gerard Meerman from the son of the orientalist Hadrianus Relandus. In a note which has been preserved, Meerrnan wrote that the atlas was purchased from the Blaeus for f 2,000. Although Meerman does not mention this, Fontaine Verwey is of the opinion that this purchase was made from the estate of Magnus' widow. Both cases concern a 19-volume, Latin atlas. The atlas in Museum Meermanno was probably not bound by Magnus, however, and contains a Dutch section (Goos' Zeeatlas)".
There were more 19-volume Blaeu atlases colored by Van Santen in circulation. Six years after Meerman's purchase in 1767, another 19-delige atlas van Blaeu colored 'extra fraay' by Van Santen and having belonged to Jan de Kommer was auctioned off (advert. dated April 14, 1667, auction April 15). It cannot be determined at the moment how closely related the atlases of the Magnus, Relandus and Jan de Kommer families maybe, due to lack of detailed descriptions (the catalogs for the Magnus widow and Jan de Kommer sales have not been recovered).
At the sale of 'papieren konst' by H.A. van der Marck (The Hague, October 31, 1712), a fourteen-volume atlas decorated by Van Santen was sold, containing the eleven-volume Atlas Maior van Blaeu en drie atlassen van Janssonius.
Willem van Beest was an art collector who possessed a large number of Van Santens (auction advert. March 3, 1714) including the above-mentioned Hertspieghel by Hendrick Laurensz Spieghel (not mentioned in the advertisement),'een Atlas in 4 deelen, een Atlas Minor', a number of volumes of the Cabinet du Roy, Bibles, emblem collections and historic works (... ), 'alle ongemeen konstig en met goud doorwrogt afgezet van den vermaerden Dirk Jansz van Zanten, nooit so gezien, (... )'. Unfortunately, the catalogue of this collection has not been found to date. The Raket agents in Amsterdam auctioned an anonymous estate in 1720 which included 'een curieuse Atlas van Blaeu in 11 Folianten, cierlyk afgezet door J. van Santen'.
Nicolaas Witsen owned a cabinet that had been specially made for an elfdelige Blaeu-Atlas, consisting of a nine-volume 'Grooten Atlas' and two Dutch Stedeboeken, 'door D.S. van Santen, curieus afgeset' (cat. March 30, 1728, p.15). Moreover, the previously mentioned unknown collector Joan Bus counted an 'Atlas' colored by Van Santen as one of his showpieces and Goswin van Uilenbroek possessed a celestial atlas colored by Van Santen (cat.1741, p.28).
In all there are about 150 atlas volumes named here, which make up 20 single and multi-volume atlases.
Van Santen's other work, from Bibles to
drawings by Pieter Holsteyn.
In addition to atlases and maps, Van Santen colored many other books during his forty-year career; these included Bibles, volumes of plates and print series (portraits, triumphant entries, funerals), heraldic works, emblems and poetry collections. The albums containing print series were often compiled by the owner (recueils factices).
It is not generally known that Van Santen coloured drawings as well as engravings. In the 1730 catalogue of Van der Hem's books, p. 62, no. 720, we find reference to an album of 79 drawings of water birds by Pieter Holsteyn (ca. 1614-1687), coloured by Van Santen ('Aves Aquatiles ad vivum eleganter depictae a Petro Holsteyn, cet ouvrage est de la demière propreté, tant pour l'exactitude & netteté des dessins ses coulours, enluminées par van Santen, que pour la conservation No. 721 (p. 63) is 'Aves ad vivum depictae a Petro Holsteyn, celeb. Pict., 104 dessins, enluminés par van Santen.' Colored drawings by Pieter Holsteyn (ca. 1614-1687) are found in large numbers in Van der Hem's collection but no mention is made of any contribution by Van Santen'. For this reason, it may be assumed that the descriptions are accurate. It is possible that Holsteyn also had been commissioned by Van der Hem and his descendants and that these drawings were 'finished' by Van Santen after Holsteyn's death in 1687.<>What follows in brief are all the descriptions of titles as they have been found to date (1992) from old auction catalogues, with the exception of the cartography and drawings cited and discussed more extensively above. A number of references most likely alludes to the same book which passed from one collector to another. It is not clear in all of the references which book or print series is meant; this is the case for 'Emblemataas' or 'Historien', for example. Nevertheless, these references have been included for the sake of completeness. Various books or print series which are mentioned as 'volumes of plates' are mentioned as separate titles (but from the same source). The books are grouped by type as much as possible; the categories we use are cartography (see above), theology, heraldry, plates and print series and other works. Clarification of the titles is given in brackets, the sources are given in parentheses. Bibliographical details are not given as yet, nor has an attempt been made to complete the catalog descriptions. Further bibliographical research will reveal more about Van Santen and his work.
Bijbel (Jean Bus, ca. 1700);
Bijbel Keur, Dordrecht 1686, with silver clasps (anonymous auction January 1, 1720), [see p.26, nr.81;
Bijbel in two volumes and approx. 150 illustrations and maps (anonymous auction April 16, 1740, Haverkamp/Kerfbijl agents);
Het Oude en Nieuwe Testament (W. van Beest 1714);
Het Oude en Nieuwe Testament van Mortier(W. van Beest 1714);
César de Saint Réal, La Vie de Jésus
Christ, Paris 1678 (Van der Marck 1727, p. 40, no. 2);
R.P.M. Tanner, Societas Jesu .., Prague 1675 (Hem 1730, pp. 5718 no. 678);
Missale Romanum S. S. Concilii Tridentini Restitutum, Pil. V Pont. Max.justu editwn Clementis VIII auctotitate recognitum, Colon. Agr. 1629 (Hem 1730, p. 57 no. 677);
[L. Hortensius], De Naektlopers (Hem 1684, p. 66, no. 20);
[Chr. van Sichem], Hooftketteren van Nederland en Amsterdam (Hem 1684, p. 66, no. 20);
Jean Le Feron & Denys Godefroy,
Histoire de Connestables, Chanceliers ... avec feurs
Armes & Blason, Paris 1651 (Hem 1684, p. 29, no. 30);
Het Huis van Croy (de hertogen van Aerschot) van het jaar 0 tot nu toe (Hem 1684, p. 65, no. 17);
Genealogie & descente ... de la Maison de Croy (Hem 1730 p. 60 no. 685);
Volumes of plates and bound print
[Ch. Perrault], Groot Carouzel van de koning van Frankiljk (Hem 1684, p. 63, no. 4);
Karoussel (Joan Bus, ca. 1700);
Het Karousel van Koning Lodewyk XIV (Cromhout 1709, p. 5, no. 18);
't Carousel (W. van Beest 1714);
Caroussel, Latin edition, Paris 1670 (G.Uilenbrock, 1729 p. 89, no. 450; 1741 p. 45, no. 319);
Courses de Testes et de Bagues ... (Caroussel), bound together with Fétes de 1'Isle Enchanté (Hem 1730 Atlas-suppl. 111 (vol. 49));
Het Carousel. Courses des testes et de Bagues ... (Valerius Rover, ms. ca. 1739, no. IIA18, 1); (54)
Eenige operaes aan de koning tot Versailles vertoont (Hem 1684, p. 63, no. 4; bound together with 'Groot Carouzel);, probably the same copy as Hem 1730, Adas-suppl.111 (vol. 49), now in the National Library, Vienna);
De Begrafenis van Karel, hertog van Lotharingen, te Nancy [Nancy, 1610-16111 (Hem 1684, p. 62, no. 1);
De Begrafenis van Karel Ill hertog van Lotharingen te Nancy [incl. 75 prints] (Deynoot 1724, p. 15 1, no. 1);
P.P. Rubens, De Intocht van de Kardinaal-Infant te Antwerpen (Hem 1684, p. 62, no. 2);
Intocht Lodewijk XIV te Reina 1654 (Hem 1730, Atlas-suppl.11 (vol. 48));
Introl'tus Ferdinandi Antwerpen 1641 (Hem
1730, Atlas-suppl. IV (vol. 50));
Portretten van Keizers van Oostenrijk (Hem 1684, p. 62, no. 21);
't Schip te Brussel voor de Koning van
Spanje (Hem 1684, p. 62, no. 21);
Portretten van Keizers en Keizerinnen van Oostenrijk, met wapens en stambomen (Hem 1684, p. 62 no. 3);
De Triomfwagen van Keizer Maximiliaan (Hem 1684, p. 62 no.3);
Inhaling van Keizer Karel V te Bologna (Hem 1684, p. 63, no.5);
De Begrafenis van Keizer Karel V (Hem 1684, p. 63, no.5);
De Begrafenis van Aartshertog Albert, gouverneur van Nederland,. (Hem 1684, p. 63, no. 6);
Portretten van doorluchtige Franse mannen naar ajbeeldingen in het paleis van kardinaal Richelieu (Hem 1684, p. 63, no. 7);
Portretten van Prinsen van Holland en Westfriesland van de 1e Graaf Dirk tot Philips van Spanje (Hem p. 64, no. 8);
Alle vaderlandse bisschoppen en heiligen (Hem p. 64, no. 8);
Portretten van de Kardinalen t.t.v.Paus Alexander VII (Hem 1684, p. 64, no. 10);
Portretten van de Kardinalen t.t.v.Paus Klemens X (Hem 1684, p. 64, no. 10);
Paleis Aidobrandina (Hem 1684, p. 64, no. 11);
De Intrede van de hertog van Anjou te Antwerpen (Hem 1684, p. 64, no. 12);
't Lusthuys van de Prins Pamphilio met de antieke beelden (Hem 1684, p. 64, no. 13);
De Zaal van Pietro da Cortona (Hem 1684, p. 64, no. 13);
Portretten van Keizers, Koningen, Heriogen etc. van het hele ChristenrUk (Hem 1684, p. 62, no. 14);
Portretten van beroemde mannen, door 'de beste meesters' als Lucas van Leyden, Darer, Aldegrever en Sadeleer (Hem 1684, p. 65, no. 15);
Boek met 52 ajbeeldingen van Doorluchte en Dappere Mannen, nauwkeutig uit de beste Meesters, als Lucas van Leiden, A.Dfirer, Aldegreef Sadeleer e.a. bijeen gebracht (Deynoot 1724, p. 152, no. 2);
Portretten van geleerden (Hem 1684, p. 65, no. 16);
45 Afbeeldingen van Geleerde Mannen (Deynoot 1724, pp. 152/3, no. 3);
De Tapitseryen van den Koning van Vrankrijk (W. van Beest 1714);
De Tapisserie van Versailjes (anon. auction 1718, Ph. Steen, agent);
Comedien van den Koning van VrankrUk (W. van Beest 1714);
Divertissementen van den Koning van Vrankrijk (W. van Beest 1714);
De Tonneelen van den keyser Leopoldus en Margherita, verbeeldende de Theaters van de Italiaansche Opera 11 Pomo d'Oro door Francisco Sbarro, door Ludovico Burnacini getekent, door M.Küsel in 't koper gesneden [40 illus.] (Valerius Röver, 1748, ms. 11A18, p. 61, no. 2);
(Cierlyke en galante printen, meest uyt de) Theatre Italien (Valerius Röver, verkocht 1738, Ms IIA18, p.
61, no. 3);
De Reis in Holland. van Karel II Koning van Engeland (Cromhout 17.09, p. 5, no. 16);
[C.van Baerlel Inkomst van Matia de Medici tot Amsterdam (Cromhout 1709, p. 5, no. 14);
De Blyde inkomst der Alderdoorluchtigste Koninginne Maria de Medici t'Amsterdam, Blaeu 1639 (Hem 1730, p. 60, no. 684);
Vertooningen op de Vreede tot Amsterdam in het Jaar 1648 (Cromhout 1709, p. 5, no. 15);
Botanical writings, poems, emblems, history, city descriptions
De hesperides (..) tot Romen gedrukt ( .. ) [J.B.Ferrarius, Hesperides .... Rome 16651 (Hem 1684, p. 65, no. 18);
Commelyn, De Nederlantse hesperides (Hem 1684, p. 65, no. 19)-1 Joh.Antonides van der Goes, Gedichten, Amsterdam 1685 (Nicolai 1698 p. 261, no. 60);'
Oxonia Illustrata, of de Afbeelding van Oxfort en haare Scholen collegien Boekzaal enz. in't Laryn (Cromhout 1709, p. 5 no. 17);
'Historien' (W. van Beest 1714);
'Zinnebeelden' (Joan Bus ca. 1700);
'Emblemataas' (W. van Beest 1714);
Ovidius' Metamorfosen with prints by Diepenbeeck (Hem 1684, p. 64, no. 9); Batimens de France (Hem 1730, Atlas suppl, vol. I (47)).
It is clear that coloring atlases was Van Santen's primary occupation, followed by the decoration of print books and print series. In addition, Van Santen regularly illuminated Bibles with inserted prints, and to a lesser extent, illustrated books of various topics, such as classical and contemporary poetry, gardening, astrology and history.
The old references to Van Santen's works run to more than 200 atlas and book volumes. If we take into consideration that Van Santen worked on some very exclusive volumes of plates for a a whole year and also that his career spanned approximately forty years, this number could approximate the total number of works he illuminated.
Up until the end of his life, Van Santen illuminated and gilded the most prestigious printed works of his time in an exceptionally painterly and brilliant manner. In so doing he made the Golden Age quite literally golden.
1. See in connection with this T.Goedings, "Kaarkicurders en de technische aspecten van het kleuren in de zestiende en zeventiende ceuw", in J.F.Heybroek (ed.), Kunst in Kaart, Amsterdam 1989, pp. 94-129.
4. Cited from W.K.Gnirrep, 'Dirk Janszoon van Santen en cen liefbebber der Joodse oudheden', Jaarverslag van het Koninklijk Oudheidkundig Genootschap, 1986, pp. 51-64, after findings of Marja Keizer. See also: M.Daamen and A.Meijer, Catalogus van gedrukte Nederlandse gelegenheidsgedichien uit de 17de en 18de eeuw in de Zeeuwse Bibliotheek te Middelburg. Middelburg 1990, no. 166.
6. J.A.Gruys and C.de Wolf, typographi & bibliopolae Neerlandici usque ad annum MDCC Thesaurus. Nederlandse boekdrukkers en boekverkopers tot 1700 met plaatsen en jaren van werkzaanheid. Nieuwkoop 1980, p. 79.
7. See U.Thieme and F.Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildende Künstier 29(1935), p. 429. In contrast to Dutch 18th and 19th century reference books on painters, the French artist encyclopedia by Mariette (Abécédario (1859) VI, p. 1) makes reference to Van Santen (as an 'excellent enlumincur' who distinguished himself in his profession).
8. The "Carrousel' or, according to its official title, the 'Courses de testes et de bague faite par le roy et des princes' represents an equestrian festivity that was given in 1662 for Louis XIV at the Place du Carrousel in Paris. Louis had this 'faite-book' and a number of others printed in large folio format about 1670, with prints from such artists as Rousselet, Edelinck and Chauveau.
9. See the Uilenbroek library catalogues from 1729, p. 89 no.450; and from 1741, p.28 no.319. The, 1729 auction did not take place. According to Fontaine Verwey, op.cit. (note 2) p.288 n.61, this volume was purchased by Uilenbroek at the Bibliotheca Nicolaiana auction (Amsterdam, 1698).
10. 'Dirck Jansen van Santen, kaartafsetter oudt 37 Jaren after de oude kerk,' Municipal archives of Amsterdam (GAA) Banns record no. 501,180. From 1675 to 1682 they lived on Spiegelgracht, it is believed from the registration of the birth of three children, all of whom died shortly after their birth. In 1682 they again were living near the Oude Kerk (perhaps related to the death of Van Santen's father in 1679).
12. There will be an exhibition devoted to the Atlas Blaeu-van der Hem very shortly (Royal Palace, Amsterdam, summer 1992). The most extensive treatment of the complete Atlas is K.Ausserer's 'Der Atlas Blaeu der Wiener Nationalbibliothek', Beitrage zur historischen Geographie, Leipzig 1929, pp.1-40.
with the coloring of maps and prints were not required to be members, it would seem. Despite the large number of colourists, there is almost no reference to them in the books of the Amsterdam guild.
16. The work that Van Santen could possibly have decorated and that was in the possession of Antiquariat J.Dinter in 1985, Cologne (Cat.3, nos.1,2) is not included in the list of titles from old catalogues and advertisements given at the end of this article. The book in question is [W.Goeree,] Mosaize historic der hebreeuwse kerke, 4 vols., Amsterdam 1700. This antiquarian bookdealer also ascribes the following work to Van Santen: A.Schoonebeeck, Histoire des ordres réIigieux Amsterdam 1695. See also W.K.Gnirrep, op.cit. (note 4), p.64.
19, There has been some research done into Willem van Beest's background by W.K.Gnirrep, op.cit. (note 4), note 4a and 16a. In his will, (notary Goblet 6-12-1713, NA 7377,1499) there is the note by the 'glaze printe bortjes': 'Bachus-feest afgezet door Jan van Zanten'. The widow was bequeated the 'printboek genaamt Tapisseric du Roy afgezet door Dirk Jansz van Santen' (NA 7377,1503). A copy of the Tapisserie also appears at the March 1714 auction.
20. We only consulted the catalogue of Cromhout's cartographic possessions, not that of his library. Thanks to Mr. Jan van der Waals for bringing this to our attention. See also below : Van Santen's cartographic work'.
23. Advert. dated Nov. 6, 1723, Amsterdamse Courant: 'J.P.Zomer en Gysbert Hol Makelaars zullen up Dingsdag den 16 November t'Amsterdam in de Witte Molen verkopen, cen party Papierkonst, door cen voornaem Liefhebber nagelaten, bestaende in konstige Italiaense, Franse en Nederlanse Meesters, so tekeningen als Prente, en eenige Modelle en veel rare en konstige afgezette Kaerten van Dirk Jarisz. van Zanten, en eenige Schilders gereedschappen, en een schoone Vryfsteen. De Catalogen zyn te bekomen by J.P.Zomer, en Gysbert Hol.'
33. No research has been done into when exactly the Atlas was given its present form of 46 volumes and 4 supplements. At the time of the Moetjens auction (1730), 14 of the 46 were no longer bound. See also Uffenbach, op.cit. (note 3), p.604.
40. See Fontaine Verwey, op.cit. (note 2), pp. 224. He expresses the opinion that all of the notes accompanying the prints were written by Van Santen. This seems unlikely because of the fact that at least four different handwritings can be distinguished.
50. The auction catalogues we consulted are found in the library of the Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Belangen des Boekhandels and the University Library, Amsterdam, aside from Cromhout (Herzog August Ulrichbibliothek, Wolffenbuttel) and Van der Hem 1684 catalogues (National Library, London). The auction advertisements are mentioned in the Amsterdamse Courant.
51. In the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague (KB) there is a four volume handsomely coloured composite atlas. Each volume contains 100 maps. Its origin has never been researched. Not only Van der Hem but also Willem van Beest possessed a four volume atlas illuminated by Van Santen.
53. See Hem 1684, pp. 66, 67, nos. 22-28, in which a total of 642 Holsteyn drawings of birds, animals and flowers are recorded. Related to nos. 720 and 721 (1730) are nos. 23 depicting 78 water birds and no. 22 depicting 102 birds, respectively.
54. According to Fontaine Verwey, op.cit (note 2), p. 228, Rdver's Caroussel is the same copy as that belonging to the Van der Hem family in 1711. At the 1730 auction (Moetjens, The Hague), however, this volume was the third supplement volume (no. 49) of the Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem which was sold in its entirety to Prince Eugenius of Savoy.
55. Perhaps Van Santen coloured more work of Antonides van der Goes. Two beautifully coloured copies are known (in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague and in a private collection) of his Y-stroom (Amsterdam 1671), bound by Magnus and containing five prints by Romeyn de Hooghe. See Fontaine Verwey, op.cit. (note 2), p.227 and note 59; see also J.Landwehr, Romeyn de Hiooghe (1645-1708) as Book Illustrator, a Bibliography, Amsterdam 1970, No. 9.