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Civitates Orbis Terrarum

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum (Atlas of Cities of the World) by Hogenberg was the second oldest printed atlas in the history of the world cartography, and the first atlas of towns. Its principal creators and authors were the theologist and editor Georg Braun, the most important engraver and publisher Franz Hogenberg, the engraver Simon van den Neuvel, the artist and draftsman Georg (Joris) Hoefnagel, the topographer Jacob van Deventer and others. Although published outside the Netherlands, the Civitates is, nevertheless, one of the best examples of the work of the Antwerp school of cartographers. Some of the key figures in the school were Abraham Ortelius, Gerardus Mercator, and a number of other geographers. The Civitates reflects the Flemish style of engraving which was typical of Dutch atlases of the period. In addition, the correspondence between Braun, Hogenberg, and Ortelius contains clear indications that the idea to create the atlas was formulated by them in Antwerp.

The more than 500 maps, contained in the atlas, represent an entire era in the history of town-mapping. Six volumes of the atlas were published between 1572 and 1617. In order to obtain the originals for his work, Braun corresponded extensively with map sellers and scholars from different cities and countries. In addition, authors carried out their own investigations. Howerver, these were not true geodetic surveys, but detailed on-location drawings of panoramic views of the towns made from some high point. Most of engravings, that decorate the Civitates from its first volume to its last, were made from such drawings by Georg Hoefnagel. Hoefnagel drew the images of many towns in France, Italy, England, and Spain. He and his son Jacob subsequently created representations of Austrian and Hungarian towns for the Civitates. Besides such overview plans, the atlas includes also more detailed maps based on topographic surveys, and particularly the surveys of Jacob van Devener (15??-1575). Correspondingly, the maps show the systematic structure of the towns' building up with the perspective representation of various quarters and individual buildings.

The town is usually placed on the background, while on the foreground is the description of its surrounding countryside and the depictions of typical inhabitants of the town in every detail. These visual representations of people served for not only augmenting the contents of the maps but also for another purpose. The pages of Braun and Hogenberg's Civitates were illustrated with figures of local inhabitants to prevent the maps from being used by the Turks for military goals, since Islam forbids images of humans.

Of the total number of towns, only a couple of dozen are located outside Europe: in Asia, Africa,and south America. This is an evidence of extremely limited cartographic knowledge of the world, due to the insufficient development of science and practices of mapmaking in the second half of the sixth century. At the same time, it is impossible not to be astonished at the huge quantity - by the standards of the time - of material included in the atlas.

title page Braun and Hogenberg's Civitates was an enormous success. It was republished and supplemented by new sections many times. Maps contained in it became exemplary; they were frequently reproduced in a smaller format by other publishers as illustrations for books and maps.

After Franz Hogenberg's death, the typographic plates for the atlas remained in Cologne, in the possession of Abraham Hogenberg. When Abraham died in 1653, his heirs evidently sold them to Johannes Janssonius, an active and skilled publisher of books and atlases in Amsterdam. In 1657, Janssonius issued the atlas in eight volumes in a completely revised edition, with illustrations arranged by country. A large number of quite new engravings were added to it, while outdated prints were omitted. Following Janssonius's death in 1664, the engravings became the property of his grandson Johannes Janssonius van Waesberge, who used some of them to compile his own atlas, which appeared in 1682. In 1694, van Waesberge's copper plates and equipment were purchased at auction by the energetic Amsterdam publisher Frederick de Wit, who was well-known for his numerous maps and atlases. De Wit organized a new edition which was also enriched with new engavings.

After de Wit's time, at the turn of the eighteenth century, the copper plates for the atlas passed into the hand of the publisher Pieter van der Aa (1659 - 1733). He acquired them in Leyden and used for an atlas which came out in 1729. This publication included a diverse mixture of engraving from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries.

After van der Aa, ownership of town maps with publisher's imprint of de Wit passed to the publishing house of Covens and Mortier. The multiple reproductions by various publishers of these 16th-century perspective views and maps over centuries can be explained by their rich historical and geographical content. At the same time, it is necessary to say that there is no atlas of the world's cities in the history of global cartography to equal the Civitates Orbis Terrarum in its size and fullness.

In addition to its historical, geographical, and cartographic significance, the Civitates is also of great artistic value. That is why, up until now, the town-maps, contained in the atlas, have adorned the most exquisite interiors and attracted the attention not only of specialists in the field, but of all admirers of fine art.

We offer some plates from "the Civitates Orbis Terrarum"

List of towns in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum
First column: modern name of the town, listed by country (in 2008).
Second column: volume and order number (for volume 1, the number printed on the map verso. The first map is A, the second 1, the third 2 etc.).

Eisenstadt 6.22a
Enns 6.23
Gmunden 5.53
Innsbruck 1.40b, 2.42, 5.58
Linz 5.52
Mannersdorf 6.22b
Salzburg 1.31c (two versions), 3.47
Schloßberg bei Seefeld 5.59b
St. Pölten 6.24
Steinach am Brenner 5.59c
Wien 1.41a, 6.21
Zirl im Inntal 5.59a

Aalst 4.10
Antwerpen 1.17, 5.27
Beaumont 3.26d
Brugge 1.16 (two versions)
Brussel 1.14
Chimay 3.27c
Gent 1.15
Huy 2.19
Ieper 2.22
Leuven 1.18b (two versions), 3.11
Ličge 1.11
Lier 4.11
Limbourg 2.18
Mariembourg 3.27b
Mechelen 1.18c (two versions), 3.12
Mons 1.13a, 3.24
Namur 2.20, 3.32
Oostende 6.11
Philippeville 3.27a
Tienen 3.13
Tournai 4.09
Walcourt 3.27d

Grodno 2.48

Kostajnica 6.42
Petrinja 6.36
Porec 2.52b
Šibenik 2.52a

Czech republic
Brno 6.29
Cáslav 6.25a
Cheb 1.29b
Chomutov 6.25b
Louny 6.26a
Polná 6.27
Praha 1.29a, 5.49
Slany 6.26b
Znojmo 6.28

Haderslev 4.33b
Helsingřr 4.26, 5.33a
Křbenhavn 4.28
Kolding 5.32
Odense 5.30
Ribe 5.33b
Třnder 5.34b

Angers 5.20b
Arras 1.13b, 3.22
Autun 3.10a
Avesnes 3.26c
Avignon 2.13
Bar-le-Duc 6.08
Besançon 2.16
Béthune 4.07
Blâmont 2.17
Blois 2.14
Bordeaux 1.09c
Bourbourg 2.23c
Bourges 2.10b
Calais 5.22
Cambrai 4.05, 5.21
Chalon-sur-Saône 4.04b
Chartres 3.08a
Châteaudun 3.08b
Colmar 2.36c
Douai 3.20
Dunkerque 2.23a
Fontainebleau 6.06b
Givet: Fort de Charlemont 3.26a
Gravelines 2.23b
Grenoble 3.09a
Henrichemont 5.18c
Hesdin 4.06
La Rochelle 2.11
Landrecies 3.26b
Lille 3.19
Lyon 1.10, 5.19a
Mâcon 4.04a
Marseille 2.12
Metz 2.15
Montpellier 1.08a (two versions)
Mulhouse 6.16b
Nancy 6.07
Nevers 3.10b
Nîmes 1.09b
Orléans 2.10a, 3.06
Paris 1.07
Poitiers 1.08c (two versions), 5.18a
Poitiers: Pierre Levée 5.18b
Romans-sur-Isčre 3.09b
Rouen 1.09a, 3.07
Rouffach 2.36b
Saintes 5.17
Saint-Germain-en-Laye 6.06a
Saint-Omer 4.08
Strasbourg 1.33
Tours 1.08a (two versions), 5.20a
Valenciennes 3.25
Vienne 5.19b
Wissembourg 2.36a

Aachen 1.12 (two versions)
Arnsberg 4.22
Augsburg 1.39
Bad Segeberg 4.32
Bamberg 6.15
Bardowick 5.44
Barth 5.45
Bernkastel 5.25b
Bonn 2.33b
Boppard 4.24b
Braunschweig 1.23a
Bremen 1.23c, 5.41
Brühl 2.33c
Büdingen 6.13
Cochem 5.24a
Dillenburg 6.12a
Dormagen-Zons 2.33d
Dortmund 4.20b
Dresden 1.28a
Duisburg 2.34b
Eckernförde 5.31
Eisleben 4.40a
Emden 2.32
Emmerich 2.34c
Erfurt 1.25c (two versions)
Eschwege 3.39a
Essen 3.40b
Essen-Werden 3.40a
Eutin 5.34a
Flensburg 4.30a
Frankenberg/Eder 3.38
Frankfurt am Main 1.35
Frankfurt an der Oder 1.27b (two versions)
Freiberg 2.39
Freising 1.40c
Fritzlar 3.39b
Fulda 1.25e (two versions)
Geldern 3.17c
Görlitz 2.45
Gotha 1.25d (two versions)
Halberstadt 3.41a
Halle/Saale 5.48a
Hamburg 1.24b, 4.36 (two ver-
Hann. Münden 4.39
Heide 5.38a
Heidelberg 1.34a
Heilbronn 6.16a
Hildesheim 5.48b
Husum 4.33a, 5.35b
Igel 5.23c
Ingolstadt 1.40b
Itzehoe 4.30b
Jena 1.25b (two versions)
Kalkar 2.35
Kassel 1.26b
Kempten 2.38
Kiel 4.34
Kleve 2.34a
Koblenz 1.36b
Köln 1.38
Konstanz 2.41a
Krempe 4.35a
Landshut 3.45
Lauingen 4.45b
Leipzig 1.28b, 6.17
Lindau 1.31d (two versions)
Lippstadt 4.20a
Lübeck 1.24a
Lüneburg 1.23b, 5.42
Magdeburg 1.30 (two versions)
Mainz 1.37a
Manderscheid 5.25c
Marburg 1.26a
Marienberg 6.19
Meißen 2.44
Meldorf 5.38b
München 1.40a, 4.43
Münster 1.22a
Münstermaifeld 5.24b
Neuss 2.33a, 4.23
Nördlingen 1.40d
Nürnberg 1.31a (two versions), 2.43
Oberwesel 4.24a
Osnabrück 1.22b
Passau 3.46
Penig 6.20
Pfalzel 5.26b
Plön 5.36
Quedlinburg 3.41b
Ratzeburg 5.43
Regensburg 1.40e, 5.51
Rendsburg 4.35b
Reutlingen 6.16c
Rostock 1.27c, 5.47
Rothenburg ob der Tauber 1.36c
Saarburg 5.26a
Schleswig 4.31
Schwäbisch Hall 2.37
Siegen 6.12b
Soest 3.37a, 4.21
Speyer 1.34b
Stade 1.23d, 5.40
Straubing 1.40f
Tönning 5.35a
Trier 1.36a
Tübingen 4.40b
Ulm 1.31b (two versions)
Warburg 3.37b
Weimar 1.25a (two versions), 3.42
Wesel 1.22c, 4.19
Wismar 1.27d (two versions),
Wittenberg 1.27a (two states)
Worms 1.34c
Würzburg 1.37b
Zell 5.25a
Zschopau 6.14

Chios 4.57
Heraklio 2.53a
Kerkyra (Corfu) 2.53b
Methoni 2.52c
Rodos 1.50c

Budapest: Buda 1.41b, 6.30
Drégelypalánk 6.39
Eger 6.32
Esztergom 5.57
Györ 5.54
Pápa 6.35
Sárosd 6.38
Szolnok 6.33
Tata 6.34
Törökszentmiklos 6.37
Visegrád 5.56b

Cork 6.03d
Dublin 6.03b
Galway 6.03a
Limerick 6.03c

Acquapendente 5.63a
Agnano-Pozzuoli 3.57
Ancona 1.46
Bologna 4.49
Bressanone 4.45a
Cagliari 1.50a
Caiazzo 5.66
Caprarola: Palazzo Farnese 5.61
Castelnuovo di Porto 5.64b
Catania 5.69
Firenze 1.44b
Fondi 5.62
Formia 3.55
Gallipoli 5.67
Genova 1.44a
Loreto 3.51b
Lucca 4.50
Mantova 2.50
Messina 1.49, 6.58
Milano 1.42
Napoli 1.47
Napoli and Vesuvio 5.65
Nocera Umbra 5.64a
Novara 6.56
Orvieto 3.51a
Ostia 4.53
Padova 6.55
Palermo 1.48c, 4.56
Palmanova 5.68
Parma 1.48a
Perugia 4.51
Pesaro 3.50
Pozzuoli 3.56
Pozzuoli - Solfatara 3.58
Pozzuoli Bay 2.51
Rimini 4.48
Roma 1.45, 2.49, 4.54
Siena 1.48b
Sulmona 4.52b
Terracina 3.54
Tivoli 3.52
Trapani 1.48d
Trento 3.48
Treviso 5.63b
Tricarico 6.57
Urbino 4.52a
Velletri 3.53
Venezia 1.43
Venezia: Piazza San Marco
and Piazetta 5.60
Verona 3.49
Vicenza 4.47
Vittorio Veneto 4.46

Riga 3.43b

Vilnius [Wilna] 3.59

Luxembourg 3.16, 5.23a
Mansfeld 5.23b

Valletta 1.50b

Amersfoort 4.15
Amsterdam 1.20, 6.10
Arnhem 3.17a
Bergen op Zoom 3.14
Bolsward 4.17a
Brielle 2.27
Brouwershaven 1.21b
Delft 3.29
Den Haag 6.09
Deventer 3.33
Dokkum 4.18b
Dordrecht 2.24, 3.28
Enkhuizen 3.30
Franeker 3.36b
Gennep 2.34d
Gorinchem 1.21c
Gouda 3.31b, 4.14
Groningen 1.21a, 2.31
Haarlem 2.26
Harderwijk 5.29
Harlingen 4.17c
’s-Hertogenbosch 1.18a (two versions),
Hindeloopen 4.17d
IJlst 4.18d
Kampen 2.30, 3.34
Leeuwarden 3.36a
Leiden 2.25
Maastricht 2.21, 3.15
Middelburg 2.28
Nijmegen 2.29, 3.18
Roermond 3.17d
Rotterdam 3.31a, 4.13
Sloten 4.18c
Sluis 3.21
Sneek 4.18a
Stavoren 4.17b
Utrecht 1.19
Venlo 3.17b
Vlissingen 5.28
Zutphen 4.16
Zwolle 3.35

Bergen 4.37

Biecz 6.50b
Gdansk 2.46
Kalwarya Zebrzydowska 6.45
Kraków 6.43, 6.44
Krosno 6.46b
Legnica 6.18b
Lowicz 6.51
Lublin 6.48
Nysa 6.18a
Poznan 6.46a
Przemysl 6.52
Sandomierz 6.50a
Swiebodzin 5.50
Szczecin 4.41 (two versions)
Warszawa 6.47
Wroclaw 4.42
Zamosc 6.53

Braga 5.03
Cascais & Belem 1.01b
Coimbra 5.04
Lisboa 1.01a, 5.02

Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár) 6.41
Oradea (Nagyvárad) 6.40

Kaliningrad (Königsberg) 3.43a
Moskva 2.47, 6.54

Bratislava (Pozsony, Pressburg) 4.44
Komárno (Komárom, Komorn) 5.55
Košice (Kassa, Kaschau) 6.31
Nové Zámky (Érsekújvár,
Neuhäusl) 5.56a

Alhama de Granada 2.03
Antequera 2.04
Archidona 5.09
Ardales 5.11a
Barcelona 1.05a
Bilbao 2.08
Bornos 5.12a
Burgos 1.06a
Cádiz 1.02b, 5.05, 5.06
Cartama 5.11b
Ceuta 1.56c
Conil 2.06a
Córdoba 6.05
Écija 1.05b
Gerena 5.08b
Granada 1.04, 1.05b (1st state), 5.13, 5.14
Jerez de la Frontera 2.06b
Las Alcantarillas 5.10b
Las Cabezas de San Juan 5.10c
Lebrija 3.05a
Loja 2.07
Los Palacios 5.10a
Málaga 1.02c
Marchena 4.03a
Osuna 4.03b
San Adrián 5.16
San Juan de Aznalfarache 5.08a
San Lorenzo de El Escorial:
Escorial 6.04
San Sebastian 1.06b
Santander 2.09
Setenil 3.05b
Sevilla 1.02a, 4.02, 5.07,
Toledo 1.03a, 5.15
Valladolid 1.03b
Vejer de la Frontera 2.05a
Vélez Málaga 2.05b
Zahara 5.12b

Altdorf 1.32i
Appenzell 1.32m
Baden 2.36d
Basel 1.32e, 2.40
(two versions)
Bern 1.32g
Glarus 1.32d
Luzern 1.32h
Sankt-Gallen 2.41b
Sarnen 1.32b
Schaffhausen 1.32l
Schwyz 1.32a
Sion 1.37c
Solothurn 1.32k
Zug 1.32c
Zürich 1.32f, 3.44

Istanbul 1.51

L’viv (Lemberg) 6.49

United Kingdom
Bristol 3.02
Cambridge 2.01
Canterbury 4.01
Chester 3.03
Edinburgh 3.04
Exeter 6.01
Lancaster 6.02c
London 1.A
Nonsuch Palace 5.01
Norwich 3.01
Oxford 2.02a
Richmond Castle 6.02d
Shrewsbury 6.02b
Windsor 2.02b
York 6.02a

Helsingborg 4.29a
Hven 4.27
Landskrona 4.29d
Lund 4.29b
Malmö 4.29c
Stockholm 4.38
Visby (Gotland) 5.39

Alexandria 2.56 (two versions)
Algiers 2.59
Arzila 1.56d
Azemmour 1.57b
Cairo 1.55 (two versions)
Casablanca 1.57a
Elmina 1.54d
Kilwa Kisiwani 1.53c
Mahdia 2.57b
Mombasa 1.53b
Peńon de Velez 2.57c
Safi 1.56b
Salé 1.56e
Sofala 1.53d
Tanger 1.56a
Tunis 2.57a, 2.58

Cuzco 1.58b
Mexico 1.58a

Aden 1.53a
Calicut 1.54a
Cannanore 1.54c
Damascus 2.55 (two versions)
Diu 1.57c
Famagusta 1.50d
Goa 1.57d
Hormuz 1.54b
Jerusalem 1.52, 2.54, 4.58-59

Plates and maps
Costumes of Dithmarsch 5.37
Denmark 4.25
Hainaut (heraldic garden) 3.23

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