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A multi coloured 17th century Dutch trade bead.

 

An extremely rare necklace made from authentic early 17th C. glass beads produced in the Netherlands. 

17th Century Dutch glass beads are exceptionally in the market, and if they are offered they are the composed of brown/black beads. This recently strung necklace with a length of 80 cm. is multi coloured and consists  90 authentic 17th century Dutch beads with a total length of 80 cms (31 inches).of the most desired treadbeads.
17th C. glass beads produced in the Netherlands are normally found and traded separately, multi coloured thread beads are extremely rare. Some of the red beads show slight discoloration due to four centuries in the soil.
Dutch glass beads, produced since the late 16th century were mainly used for trade in North America, Africa, and Indonesia.
It is known that Henry Hudson bartered Dutch beads when travelling for the VOC in 1609, and, besides other goods, glass beads are discussed to have been paid for the purchase of Manhattan Island in 1626. They are found in early North American Iroquois and Susquehannock sites, but also on the Antilles, in East and West Africa, and on Bali.

Provenance: the beads offered here were excavated from a Dutch glass-furnace that was shut down in 1623.

Please ask for price and futher details

The history of Beads and Tradephotograph of bead card

Europeans, realized early on that beads were important to Native Americans. The Dutch West India Company (W.I.C.) used the beads for trading with natives in America and Africa. Corporations such as the Hudson Bay Company and individuals such as Stephen A. Frost developed lucrative bead-trading markets with the Indians. Contemporary prints exist of Indians wearing these beads. Also the East India Company (V.O.C.) must have used them for trade as Dutch Trade beads are also found also in Polynesia.

The towns of Amsterdam and Middelburg where important manufactory places for these  glass breads making beads very like contemporary Venice, because the beadmakers in Holland were themselves Venetians. The glass production was introduced in the Low Countries by Antonio Miotti, member of the famous Venetian glass and bead manufacturing family, first in Antwerp in 1590, and subsequently in Middelburg and in Amsterdam. The glass bead production technique in the Netherlands was different from that in Venice because the Dutch used potash instead of soda to liquify the glass for glass-blowing.

Such beads are normally found and traded separately, the item here is a complete necklace of such glass beads.
Amsterdam
Although a glass bead industry is documented in Amsterdam from 1619 to at least 1679, recent archeological evidence suggests that the industry was operating near the edge of the old part of the city in the early 1590s. Manufacturing debris and more than 50,000 whole and fragmentary beads have been found. At the Waterlooplein in Amsterdam the fill of a ditch dating between ca. 1580 and 1593 included tubular bead fragments and fragments of glass tubing. A variety of artifacts producing evidence of the beadmaking industry was found in deposits dating from 1593 to 1596 and also included bone beads, jet beads, and an oblate black glass button. Two late 16th-century bead manufacturing sites were found at the west end of the Keizersgracht.

 

Beads are small objects, the importance of which in human history is far greater than one might think based on their size. Archaeologists tell us that people have made beads for at least 30,000 years. Although the Illinois State Museum has no beads this ancient, it does have Egyptian faience beads that might be 5000 years old, 3200-year old Egyptian glass beads ca. 1200 B.C., and bone and shell beads from 2000-year old Illinois Hopewellian sites. The Illinois State Museum has thousands of seventeenth and eighteenth century trade beads in its Native American archaeology and anthropology collections. Also the Frost Trade Bead Collection and several hundred nineteenth and twentieth century beaded objects from Indian groups throughout North America, including objects received by Stephen A. Frost & Son in exchange for beads.

Bead History
The earliest beads are made from natural materials: bone, shell, and stone. Faience - glazed quartzite paste - is the earliest artificial material from which beads are made. It first appeared in Egypt some 5500 years ago, a millennium before the invention of glass. Faience beads were widely traded in the Old World; they show up in archaeological sites throughout the Mediterranean area, in Europe, Africa, and Asia, and notably in India at sites along the Indus River.

Ancient peoples adorned themselves with bead jewelry, attached beads in their hair, and buried their dead with beads. Beaded clothing was common, as were baskets, boxes, and other household objects.

In North America, beads made from precious materials such as dentalium shell were used by Northwest Coast Indians to settle disputes. Many Indians in the Eastern Woodlands made purple and white beads from marine shell. Called wampum, these beads were strung together in patterns. Greatly valued, especially by the tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, wampum strings or "belts" served as symbols of political office, were used to validate agreements and for record-keeping purposes, were given as gifts, and were worn as personal ornamentation. However, despite what you might read in dictionaries and history books, Native Americans did not use wampum as money, though some European colonists - the Dutch and, to a lesser extent, the English - did use wampum they manufactured to pay expenses.

Trading Beads
The first European explorers and colonists gave Native Americans glass and ceramic beads as gifts and used beads for trade with them. The Indians had made bone, shell, and stone beads long before the Europeans arrived in North America, and continued to do so. However, European glass beads, mostly from Venice, some from Holland and, later, from Poland and Czechoslovakia, became popular and sought after by the Indians. The most famous story in American history involving trade beads is that Peter Minuit and his Dutch settlers did purchase Manhattan Island in 1625 for $24 in beads. It is probably not true, but the history is aluzing. See "The romance of the Purchase of Manhatten"

#########Europeans, of course, realized early on that beads were important to Native Americans. Corporations such as the Hudson Bay Company and individuals such as Stephen A. Frost developed lucrative bead-trading markets with the Indians (see the section on Stephen A. Frost & Son).

The availability of glass beads increased, their cost decreased, and they became more widely used by Indians throughout North America. Ceramic beads declined in popularity as glass bead manufacturers came to dominate the market because of their variety of color, price, and supply. At first, glass beads supplemented those made from natural materials, but, in time, glass beads almost completely replaced Indian-made ones. For some groups, especially on the coasts, the loss of access to marine shell and the loss of land suitable for hunting to obtain bone led to the eventual predominance of glass beads. Similarly, through time, glass beads largely replaced natural and dyed porcupine quills as decorative materials. One outcome of this was that the quantity of quillwork declined, although it never completely disappeared. The Indians' loss of land and the reduced access to porcupines were also factors in their shift to the use of glass beads.

At the dawn of the twenty-first century, beadwork remains an integral part of some Indian cultures, especially on the Plains and in Western North America. 

 

The Romance of the Purchase of Manhattan

Ask almost any American how Manhattan Island was bought and they will almost always say "with beads." Unfortunately, the historical facts do not bear this out and Peter Minuit and his Dutch settlers did not purchase Manhattan Island in 1625 for $24 in beads. As Peter Francis, Jr. demonstrates in a 1986 prize-winning article, "The Beads That Did Not Buy Manhattan Island," the story dates from the nineteenth century and has no historical basis in fact.

Where did the bead story come from?

 

The most famous painting of the event is Alfred Douglas' Purchase of Manhattan Island by Peter Minuit, 1626.

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Beads and cloth spill out of the box in the center of the picture as Peter Minuit beckons toward it.

The first person to mention beads was, as far as I can tell (and no one has come up with an earlier source since 1987), Martha J. Lamb (1877) History of the City of New York. This picture accompanied the text in which she listed beads as part of the purchase price. It was often reproduced

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The Dutchman in the center leans over a large box and holds a string of beads in his left hand, motioning to them with his right. In front of him is a smaller box with other beads in a rosary, a highly unlikely object for fiercely Protestant Holland to be trading.

 

Martha Lamb had two pictures of this event, this one captioned Trading with the Indians.

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Wasn't it nice of the "Indians" to provide the Dutch with a little table and a three-legged stool?

The Memorial History of New York (1892) by J.G. Wilson was influential in selling this idea, as it was the standard work on New York City history for a long time. The text includes beads, as does the accompanying often-reproduced picture. The native woman kneeling to the left of the box is examining a strip of something.

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The beads are harder to see, but they are draped along the right-hand side of the cloth on top of the box in the center

 

Published Books and Articles

1967 European Trade Beads in Florida. Florida Anthropologist 20 (3-4): 164-169.

1968 The Palm River Midden, Hillsborough County, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 21 (2-3): 67-73.

1970a The Fire Cloud Site (39BF237), Buffalo County, South Dakota. Plains Anthropologist 15 (48): 135-142.

1970b The Fish Creek Site, Hillsborough County, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 23 (2): 62-80.

1971 Munsell/Color Harmony Manual Equivalent Table. Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 4 (1): 7.

1972 Glass Trade Beads in North America: An Annotated Bibliography. Historical Archaeology 6: 87-101. Co-authored by Roderick Sprague.

1974a Additional Notes on the Philip Mound, Polk County, Florida. Florida Anthropologist 27 (1): 1?8.

1974b Seventeenth Century Dutch Beads. Historical Archaeology 8: 64-82.

1977 Beads from the Fort at Coteau-du-Lac, Quebec. History and Archaeology 15: 67-87.

1978 The Beads from Fort Lennox, Quebec. History and Archaeology 20: 199-210.

1980 A Bibliography of Glass Trade Beads in North America. South Fork Press, Moscow, Idaho. Co-authored by Roderick Sprague.

1981a Beads from Fort Beausejour, New Brunswick. Parks Canada, Research Bulletin 161.


1981b Glass Beads from Yuquot, British Columbia. History and Archaeology 44: 79-92.

1981c Glass Trade Beads from a Salvaged Pit in Peter Pond National Historic Site, Saskatchewan. Parks Canada, Research Bulletin 160.

1981d The Old Fort Point Site: Fort Wedderburn II? Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History 26: 209-267.

1982a A Sample Book of 19th-Century Venetian Beads. History and Archaeology 59: 39-82.

1982b Guide to the Description and Classification of Glass Beads. History and Archaeology 59: 83-117.

1982c The Levin Catalogue of Mid-19th Century Beads. History and Archaeology 59: 5-38.

1983a Dutch Trade Beads in North America. In "Proceedings of the 1982 Glass Trade Bead Conference," edited by Charles F. Hayes III and others. Rochester Museum and Science Center, Research Records 16: 111-126.

1983b Nottingham House: The Hudson's Bay Company in Athabasca, 1802-1806. History and Archaeology 69: 3-281.

1983c "Proceedings of the 1982 Glass Trade Bead Conference," Charles F. Hayes III, general editor. Rochester Museum and Science Center, Research Records 16. Associate editor.

1984a The Gunflint Industry at Brandon. Arms Collecting 22 (2): 51-59.

1984b Important Late 19th-Century Venetian Bead Collection. Bead Forum 5: 5-7.

1984c In Memoriam: Iain C. Walker, 1938-1984. Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology, Occasional News 2: 2.

1985a Beads from Iron Age Hoardes in Latvia. Bead Forum 6: 9-11.

1985b Early Amsterdam Trade Beads. Ornament 9 (2): 36-41.

1985c Glass Beads: The Levin Catalogue of Mid-19th Century Beads: A Sample Book of 19th Century Venetian Beads: Guide to the Description and Classification of Glass Beads. 2nd ed. Parks Canada, Studies in Archaeology, Architecture and History.

1987a A Bibliography of Glass Trade Beads in North America - First Supplement. Promontory Press, Ottawa. Co-authored by Roderick Sprague.

1987b The Birmingham Bead Industry. Bead Forum 10: 9-11.

1987c Some Comments on Mulberry and Twisted Square Beads. Bead Forum 11:12-14.

1988a Beads from the Wreck of the Dutch East Indiaman De Liefde (1711). Bead Forum 12: 11-17.

1988b European Chicken Egg Beads. Bead Forum 12: 24.

1988c The Gunflint Industry at Brandon. Black Powder 35: 24, Supplement.

1989a The Beads of St. Eustatius, Netherlands Antilles. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 1: 55-80. Joint-authored with Norman F. Barka.

1989b The Suitability of the ISCC-NBS Centroid Color Charts for Determining Bead Colors. Bead Forum 14: 8-12.

1990a An Early 19th-Century Account of Beadmaking in Murano and Venice. Bead Forum 17: 5-8. Joint-authored with Derek Jordan.

1990b Beads from the Mid-18th-Century Manilla Wreck, Bermuda. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 19(4): 33-42.

1990c Dominique Bussolin on the Glass-Bead Industry of Murano and Venice (1847).Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 2: 69-84. Initial translation by Carol F. Adams.

1991a Archaeological Evidence for Beadmaking in Riga, Latvia, During the 13th-14th Centuries. Bead Forum 18: 11-13.

1991b The Beads from Oudepost I, A Dutch East India Company Outpost, Cape, South Africa. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 3: 61-72. Co-authored with Carmel Schrire.

1991b French Gunflint Manufacture and the New Edinburgh Encyclopedia (First American Edition). Arms Collecting 29(1): 17-19.

1992a The Beads of Roman and Post-Medieval Antwerpen, Belgium. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 4: 21-28. Co-authored with Tony Oost.

1992b Identifying Beads Used in the 19th-Century Central East Africa Trade. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 4: 49-59.

1992c Trade Ornament Usage Among the Native Peoples of Canada: A Source Book. Parks Canada, Studies in Archaeology, Architecture and History, Ottawa.

1993a A Venetian Landmark Closes. Bead Forum 22: 20-21.

1993b In Memoriam: Kenneth E. Kidd, 1906-1994. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 5: 3-8. Co-authored by Jamie Hunter.

1993c The A Speo Method of Heat Rounding Drawn Glass Beads and its Archaeological Manifestations. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 5: 27-36.

1993d The Beads of the Pantigo Site, A Montauk Cemetery on Eastern Long Island, N.Y. In The History and Archaeology of the Montauk, edited by Gaynell Stone, pp. 629-641. Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory 3, 2nd ed.

1993e The Great White Arabia Bead Project. Bead Forum 23: 14-16.

1994a The Center for the Study of Beadwork. Bead Forum 24:12-15.

1994b Photographing Patinated Glass Beads. Bead Forum 25:13.

1995 A Study of the Beads from Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, the Heron Site and the Bruneau/Casselman Site. In Before and Beyond Sainte-Marie: 1987-1990 Excavations at the Sainte-Marie among the Hurons Site Complex (circa 1200-1990), by J. Tummon and W.B. Gray, pp. 161-184. Copetown Press, Dundas, Ontario.

1996 The Bead Forum Index: Nos. 1-27 (1982-1995). Bead Forum 29, supplement.

1997a Medals Commemorating Latvia's War of Liberation (1918-1920). Journal of the Orders and Medals Society of America 48(2): 35-40.

1997b Tales that Privies Tell. CRM 20(4): 31-32.

1998a Appendix 3: Beads. In Montpelier Jamaica: A Plantation Community in Slavery and Freedom, 1739-1912, by Barry W. Higman, pp. 323-327. The Press University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

1998b Bead Research Dos and Don'ts. Bead Forum 32: 10-15.

2000 Studies in Material Culture Research. Society for Historical Archaeology, California, Pennsylvania. Editor.

2000-01 Man-in-the-Moon Beads. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 12-13: 39-47. Joint-authored with Michele Lorenzini.


Manuscript Reports

1965 Preliminary Site Report - 8 Hi 114. Manuscript on file, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida, Tampa.

1970a A Report on the 1970 York Factory Evaluation. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa. Co-authored by James V. Chism.

1970b The Documentary and Archaeological Evidence of Fences Associated with the Engineer's Cottage, Lower Fort Garry, Manitoba. Parks, Manuscript Report Series No. 148. Co-authored by James V. Chism.

1970 - 1971 An Analysis of the Beads Recovered from Five National Historic Sites. Parks, Manuscript Report Series No. 37.

1971a An Evaluation and Inventory of the Archaeological Features at L'Anse aux Meadows. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1971b Dry Laid Masonry Structures at Castle Hill, Newfoundland, and the Structure 2 Annex, Signal Hill, Newfoundland. Parks, Manuscript Report Series No. 39.

1973a The Beads from Fort William, 1968-1973. Manuscript on file, Old Fort William Historical Park, Thunder Bay, Ontario.

1973b Results of the 1973 Fort St. James, B.C., Archaeological Project. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1975 The Archaeological Survey of Old Fort Point, Alberta. Manuscript on file (restricted), National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1976 Results of the 1973-74 Fort St. James, B.C., Archaeological Project. Parks, Manuscript Report Series No. 410. Co-authored by Ellen R. Lee.

1981 Structural Analysis of the New Bakehouse Complex and the Southern Traders' Huts at Fort St. Joseph, Ontario. Parks, Microfiche Report Series No. 200.

1984 Canadian Arctic Prehistory Study - Phase I: Thematic Framework and Preliminary Identification of Canadian Sites. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1986a Historic Fur Trade Sites of Canada. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1986b Household Products in the Canadian Prairie Market, 1870-1920, with Notes on Their Containers, Uses and Prices - A Resource File. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1986c The Jasper House Artifacts, 1986 Season. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1987a The Fort Walsh Townsite (8N) Feature Synthesis and Artifact Inventory. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1987b "Packaged Indulgences" in the Canadian Prairie Market, 1870-1920, with Notes on Their Containers, Uses and Prices: A Resource File. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1988a Analysis of Artifacts Recovered from Selected Archaeological Contexts at Fort Langley, 1986-87. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks, Ottawa.

1988b Analysis of the Beads from the San Donato Cemetery, Murano, Venice. Manuscript on file, Dipartimento di Scienze, Storico-Archeologiche e Orientalistiche, Universitŕ degli Studi, Venice, Italy.

1989 Commercial Containers: A Select Bibliography. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Canadian Parks Service, Ottawa.

1990a Inventory and Assessment of Archaeological Sites in the Vicinity of Auyuittuq National Park Reserve. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Canadian Parks Service, Ottawa.

1990b North Baffin Park Area Archaeological Site Inventory and Assessment. Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Canadian Parks Service, Ottawa.

1990c Preliminary Report on the Pawnee Bead Sequence. Manuscript on file, Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, Nebraska.

1992a Inventory of the Archaeological and Historical Sites in the Wager Bay Region, Keewatin District, N.W.T., 1992 Field Season. In Wager Bay Archaeological Survey, District of Keewatin, N.W.T., by Deborah Webster. Manuscript on file, National Historic Sites, Parks Canada, Ottawa.

1992b Wager Bay Archaeological Survey: 1991 Season, District of Keewatin, N.W.T. Manuscript on file, National Historic Sites, Parks Canada, Ottawa.

1995 Analysis of Artifacts Recovered from Selected Archaeological Contexts at Fort Langley, B.C., 1986-87. In "Archaeological Investigations at Fort Langley National Historic Site, British Columbia, 1986-89," by John E.P. Porter et al., pp. 100-108. Parks Canada, Microfiche Report Series 532.

1997 The Beads of Fort Témiscamingue. Manuscript on file, Parks Canada, Ontario Service Centre, Ottawa.

1998 The Wager Bay Archaeological Survey, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories, 1991-1992. Manuscript on file, National Historic Sites, Parks Canada, Ottawa


Reviews

1983 Review of Colonial Frontier Guns, by T.M. Hamilton. Historical Archaeology 17(2): 122-124.

1991 Review of Indian Trade Ornaments in the Collections of Field Museum of Natural History, by James W. VanStone. Historical Archaeology 25(1): 123-124.

1993 Review of "Crystal Myths, Inc., Presents Lewis C. Wilson on Glass Bead Making" (video) and "Crystal Myths, Inc., Presents Lewis C. Wilson on Lampworking: Advanced Beads, Bracelets, Marbles. Parts 1 and 2" (video), by Crystal Myths, Inc. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 5: 64-65.

1994a Review of Collectible Beads: A Universal Aesthetic, by Robert K. Liu. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 6: 84-85.

1994b Review of Perlen aus Gablonz: Historismus, Jugendstil/ Beads from Gablonz: Historicism, Art Nouveau, by Waltraud Neuwirth. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 6: 81-82.

1995a Review of Beads of the Bison Robe Trade: The Fort Union Trading Post Collection. Historical Archaeology 29(1): 120-121.

1995b Review of The PANTONE Book of Color, by L. Eiseman and L. Herbert, and PANTONE Textile Color Guide - Paper Edition, by Pantone, Inc. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 7: 98-99.

1998-99a Review of Glasperlen Christbaumschmuck/Glass Christmas Tree Ornaments, by Waltraud Neuwirth. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 10-11: 68-69.

1998-99b Review of Little Chief's Gatherings, by James A. Hanson. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 10-11: 71-72.

2000-01 Review of Flights of Fancy: An Introduction to Iroquois Beadwork, by Dolores N. Elliott. Beads: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers 12-13: 80.


Papers, Lectures, and Workshops

1982a Dutch Trade Beads in the Northeast. Paper presented at the Glass Trade Bead Conference, Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester, June 12-13.

1982b Glass Trade Beads in the Great Lakes Region Prior to 1800. Lecture presented at the April 14th meeting of the Ottawa Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, Ottawa.

1983 The Dutch Bead Trade. Paper presented (by proxy) at the New Netherland Studies Symposium, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, February 7-8.

1984 Glass Beads from a Late 16th-Early 17th Century Glasshouse in Amsterdam. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Williamsburg, Virginia, January 5-8.

1985 Toward a Chronology for Dutch Trade Beads. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Boston, January 9-13.

1986 Archaeological and Historical Sites of the Caribbean. Lecture presented at the December 10th meeting of the Ottawa Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, Ottawa.

1990 Dutch Beads: The True Story. Paper presented at the Second International Bead Conference, Washington, D.C., October 5-7.

1991 Trade Ornaments Among the Native Peoples of Canada. Lecture presented at the February 13th meeting of the Ottawa Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, Ottawa.

1993a An Archaeological Survey of Wager Bay, N.W.T. Lecture presented at the February 10th meeting of the Ottawa Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, Ottawa.

1993b Determining Bead Shapes, Colors, and Diaphaneity. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Kansas City, Missouri, 6-10 January.

1993c European Bead Manufacturing Techniques. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Kansas City, Missouri, 6-10 January.

1994a A Classification System for Drawn Glass Beads. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Vancouver, British Columbia, 5-9 January.

1994b Souvenir Beadwork of the Six Nations Iroquois. Paper presented at the January 12th meeting of the Portland Bead Society, Portland, Oregon, and the January 13th meeting of the Northwest Bead Society, Seattle, Washington.

1995 Iroquoian Beaded Whimsies. Paper presented at the Third International Bead Conference, Washington, D.C., 17-19 November.

1996 Glass Trade Bead Workshop. Paper presented at the 30th Anniversary Meeting of the Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology, Albany, New York, 18-20 October.

2002 Bohemian Beads. Paper presented at the 41st Annual Seminar on Glass, Corning Museum of Glass, Corning, New York, 16-19 October.



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